Tirmidhi s1.4: Entering the toilet

Hadith

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، وَهَنَّادٌ، قَالاَ: حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ صُهَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ: كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْخَلاَءَ، قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ قَالَ شُعْبَةُ: وَقَدْ قَالَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى: أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الْخُبْثِ وَالْخَبِيثِ، أَوِ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ

وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، وَزَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ، وَجَابِرٍ، وَابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ

حَدِيثُ أَنَسٍ أَصَحُّ شَيْءٍ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ وَأَحْسَنُ.وَحَدِيثُ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ فِي إِسْنَادِهِ اضْطِرَابٌ: رَوَى هِشَامٌ الدَّسْتَوَائِيُّ، وَسَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، فَقَالَ سَعِيدٌ: عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ الشَّيْبَانِيِّ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ، وَقَالَ هِشَامٌ: عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ، وَرَوَاهُ شُعْبَةُ، وَمَعْمَرٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، فَقَالَ شُعْبَةُ: عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ، وَقَالَ مَعْمَرٌ: عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ , عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

سَأَلْتُ مُحَمَّدًا عَنْ هَذَا، فَقَالَ: يُحْتَمَلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَتَادَةُ رَوَى عَنْهُمَا جَمِيعًا

Sanad 1-2: Qutaybah & Hannad → Waki' → Shu'bah → Abdul Aziz b. Suhayb → Anas b. Malik said,

When the Prophet SAW used to enter the toilet, he would say, 'اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ' (Allah! I seek refuge from you).

Shu'bah says, [Abdul Aziz b. Suhayb] another time said, 'أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الْخُبْثِ وَالْخَبِيثِ' or [he said] 'الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ'.

On this issue [there are reports] from Ali, Zayd b. Arqam, Jabir and Ibn Mas'ud.

Imam Tirmidhi states the hadith of Anas is the most ṣaḥiḥ thing on this matter and the best.

In the sanads to Zayd b. Arqam there is idtirab1 .

Hisham Dastwa'i and Sa'id b. Abu Arubah narrate from Qatadah. Sa'id said, 'Qasim b. Awf Shaybani → Zayd b. Arqam'. Hisham said, 'Qatadah → Zayd b. Arqam'.

Shu'bah and Ma'mar narrate this [hadith] from Qatadah → Nadr b. Anas. Then Shu'bah says, '[Nadr] from Zayd b Arqam'. Ma'mar says, 'Nadr b. Anas → his father2 '.

[They all narrate] from the Prophet SAW.

I asked Muhammad [b. Isma'il Bukhari] about this [inconsistency]. He says, 'It is possible that Qatadah narrated all of it from both of them.'

Sanad 3: Ahmad b. Abdah Dabbi → Hammad b. Zayd → Abdul Aziz b. Suhayb → Anas b. Malik said,

 

Allusion

إذا / Lit. when, if / In this case, it can possibly refer to any of the following three instances:

  1. Before entering such as 'When (before) you stand for salah, wash your face'.3
  2. Whilst entering such as 'When (whilst) the Quran is being recited, listen to it'.4
  3. After entering such as 'When (after) you get out of Ihram, you may hunt'.5

The majority are of the view that the dua should be read before entering.

خلاء / Lit. Seclusion /

خبث / sl. خبيث / lit. filth, male shaytan / translit. kubuth, khubth: Allm Khattabi6 suggest that to read it khubth is an error. In fact both are fine. /

خبائث / sl. خبيثة /

Usul Hadith

 

  1. Hisham Dastwa'i → Qatadah → Zayd b. Arqam
  2. Sa'id b. Abu Arubah → Qatadah → Qasim b. Awf Shaybani → Zayd b. Arqam
  3. Shu'bah → Qatadah → Nadr b. Anas → Zayd b. Arqam
  4. Ma'mar → Qatadah → Nadr b. Anas → Anas b. Malik

All the sanads converge on Qatadah. However, there are a few oddities thereafter.

(1) Does Qatadah narrate this hadith directly from a sahabi or via a link? Technically, it is possible that he did both. It is common to narrate from a teacher and then seek to narrate from the teacher's teacher. However, here it seems unlikely. Zayd b. Arqam RA died in 66 AH whilst Qatadah was born in 61 AH. Even if one assumes he heard the hadith aged 5 which happens, there will be little need for him to mention the other sanads other than confirmatory purposes. Hakim Nishapuri7 asserts that other than Anas RA, it is not proven that Qatada heard from any other sahabi.

(2) Does Qatadah narrate this hadith from Zayd b. Arqam RA or Anas b. Malik RA? It is possible that he narrates from both. It is known that Abdul Aziz b. Suhayb narrated this hadith from Anas RA as stated in the primary sanad of this chapter. The query here is does Nadr b. Anas narrate this hadith from Anas RA as reported by Maʿmar. Imam Bayhaqi states that Ma'mar report is an error.

(3) Does Qatadah narrate from Qasim or Nadr? It is likely that he narrated from both. The sanad of Saʿid is confirmed by Shuʿbah also. Ibn Hibban reports this hadith via Shu'bah from Qatadah → Qasim (the same as Saʿīd). Additionally, the report of Shuʿbah via Naḍr

Fiqh Hadith

The following discussions arise from the hadith

  • The dua for entering the toilet
  • The ruling of reading the dua before entering the toilet
  • When to read the dua for entering the toilet

All agree that dua should be recited before entering the toilet. All also agree that dua cannot be read after one has opened their bottom or has started relieving themself.

Imam Malik states one is allowed to read after entering the toilet but before they sit whilst the majority state that it is not allowed after one enters the toilet.

  • 1A form of inconsistency which is seemingly irresolvable.
  • 2Anas b. Malik RA
  • 3إذا قمتم إلي الصلو فاغسلوا وجوهكم
  • 4إذا قرئ القران فاستمعوا له
  • 5إذا حللتم فاصطادوا'
  • 6Islah Khata' Muhaddithin
  • 7Ma'rifat Ulūm al-Hadith
  • Type: Note

  • Subject: Hadith, Sunan Tirmidhi

  • Author: M. Saifur Rahman Nawhami

  • Translator:

  • Collection: Notebook

  • ID: 200923501

  • Tags:

  • Updated: 05-April-2023