24 Sept 2020 CE
َدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ: كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا خَرَجَ مِنَ الْخَلاَءِ، قَالَ: غُفْرَانَكَ
هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ، لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ
وَأَبُو بُرْدَةَ بْنُ أَبِي مُوسَى، اسْمُهُ عَامِرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الأَشْعَرِيُّ وَلاَ يُعْرَفُ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ إِلاَّ حَدِيثُ عَائِشَةَ
Sanad 1: Muhammad b. Isma'il → Malik b. Isma'il → Isra'il → Yusuf b. Abu Burdah → His Father → Aisha RA said
When the Prophet of Allah ﷺ exited the toilet, he said, 'غفرانك' (your forgiveness).
This hadith is gharib hasan. We do not know of this [hadith] except via Isra'il → Yusuf b. Abu Burdah.
Abu Burdah b. Abu Musa: His name is Amir b. Abdullah b. Qays Ash'ari.
[No reports] are known in the matter except the hadith of Aisha RA.
إذا / Lit. when, if / In this case, it can possibly refer to any of the following three moments. (1) Before entering1 , (2) Whilst entering2 , and (3) After entering3 . The majority are of the view that the dua should be read before entering.
الخلاء / Lit. empty space / Toilet / A place which is not covered by walls or a house. Here it refers to a place where people go to relieve themself.4
غفرانك / Lit. your forgiveness / Ghufrān is a masdar and it is mansub. Hence, it is likely to be mafʿūl mutlaq although it can also be mafʿūl bihi. In the first, the full translation may be 'Being sorry, I apologise' (غفرت غفرانك) or 'Being sorry, I thank you' (شكرت غفرانك). In the second, the full translation will be 'I seek your forgiveness' (أطلب غفرانك).
Many suggestions are given as to what 'غفرانك' actually means in this case. The most fitting explanation is it comes in the meaning of 'أشكرك' (I thank you). This is supported by the narration of Anas RA and Abu Zarr RA which state that the Prophet ﷺ said, 'All praise is to Allah who took away from us harm and forgiven us'.5 These are words of thanks. Further support is found in an expression in Arabic 'غفرانك لاكفرانك' which means 'Thank you, no thankless'.6
Muhammad b. Isma'il is Imam Bukhari.
The meaning Hasan Gharib is outlined in Kitab al-'Ilal.
All the sanads of hadith with the wording 'غفرانك' converge on Isra'il → Ibn Abu Burdah
The following discussions arise from the hadith
- The dua for exiting the toilet
- The ruling of reading the dua after exiting the toilet
- When to read the dua for exiting the toilet
In terms of the dua for exiting the toilet, the following duas are reported:
- الحمد لله الذي أذهب عني الأذى وعافاني
- الحمد لله الذي أذهب عنا الحزن والأذى وعافاني
- الحمد لله الذى أخرج عنى مايؤذينى وامسك علىّ ما ينفعنى
- الحمد لله الذى اذاقنى لذته وابقى فيّ قوته واذهب عنى اذاه
Other than the first dua, the sanads of the remainder is weak. However, due to the general expressions being somewhat similar, there is some leeway in adding these words to 'غفرانك' such as, 'غفراك الحمد لله أذهب عنى الأذى وعافاني'.
In terms of reading the dua after exiting the toilet, it is mustahab to read 'غفرانك' and if one adds more then it is fine. There is no sin if it is missed.
In terms of when to read the dua, if it is an enclosure, one should read the dua after they have exited the toilet. If it is an opening, the dua should be read after one has fully cleaned themselves and moved away from that spot. It is makruh to read whilst one is relieving themselves or has not cleansed according to all. The majority, except for the Malikiyyah, state that it is makruh to read the dua whilst in an enclosed toilet even after finishing. The Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, 'إِنِّي كَرِهْتُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلا عَلَى طُهْرٍ' (I dislike remembering Allah [verbally] except that I am clean)7 . The discussion on the matter has passed in the previous chapter
- 1Similar to 'إذا قمتم إلي الصلو فاغسلوا وجوهكم' - when (before) you stand for salah, wash your face.
- 2Similar to 'إذا قرئ القران فاستمعوا له' - When (whilst) the Quran is being recited, listen to it.
- 3Similar to 'إذا حللتم فاصطادوا' - when (after) you get out of Ihram, you may hunt.
- 4See note for the different names of toilets in the hadith
- 5الحمد لله الذي أذهب عني الأذى وعافاني - Although experts have commented on it sanad of this report and other reports like it. However, due to the number of hadith of this sort which expresses gratitude, it gains some weight.
- 6Even in English we sometimes use sorry to express gratitude. Such as if somebody waits whilst we are packing our bag, we may say 'sorry' but mean thank you for being patient.
- 7Sunan Abu Dawud
Subject: Hadith, Sunan Tirmidhi
Author: M. Saifur Rahman Nawhami