24 Safar 1442 AH / 11 Oct 2020 CE
It is prohibited for a person to marry their direct descendants, direct ancestors, the direct descendants of their parents and the children of their ancestors from the grandparent's level or above. They may not marry the wives (or equivalent) of their direct descendants or ancestors. These same restrictions apply to the person's radhaʿi relatives also.
It is not permissible for a man that he marries his
- grandmothers from the male line or the female line
- child's daughter however so low [in descent]
[It is not permissible for him to marry his]
- daughters of his sister
- father's sister
- mother's sister
[The prohibition] includes within it the various sisters of the father, various sisters of the mother and the daughters of the various brothers.
It is not [permissible for him to marry]:
- the mother of his wife [irrespective] if he had intercourse with the daughter [of that mother] or did not have intercourse.
- the woman of his father and grandfathers.
- the woman of his son and his children's son.
It is not [permissible for him to marry] his radhaʿi mother or his radhaʿi sister.
لَا يَحِلُّ لِلرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ بِأُمِّهِ وَلَا بِجَدَّاتِهِ مِنْ قِبَلِ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى
حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَالْجَدَّاتُ أُمَّهَاتٌ، إذْ الْأُمُّ هِيَ الْأَصْلُ لُغَةً أَوْ ثَبَتَتْ حُرْمَتُهُنَّ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ
It is not permissible for a man that he marries his mother. It is not [permissible for him to marry] his grandmothers from the male line or the female line.
As Allah Almighty says1 , 'Your mothers and your daughters are forbidden upon you'.
Grandmothers are mothers2 as the literal meaning of mother is the [female] ancestor. [Furthermore,] the prohibition [of marrying the grandmother] is established with ijmaʿ.
وَلَا بِبِنْتِهِ لِمَا تَلَوْنَا
وَلَا بِبِنْتِ وَلَدِهِ وَإِنْ سَفَلَتْ لِلْإِجْمَاعِ.
وَلَا بِأُخْتِهِ وَلَا بِبَنَاتِ أُخْتِهِ وَلَا بِبَنَاتِ أَخِيهِ وَلَا بِعَمَّتِهِ وَلَا بِخَالَتِهِ لِأَنَّ حُرْمَتَهُنَّ مَنْصُوصٌ عَلَيْهَا فِي هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ، وَتَدْخُلُ فِيهَا الْعَمَّاتُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَاتُ وَالْخَالَاتُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَاتُ وَبَنَاتُ الْإِخْوَةِ الْمُتَفَرِّقِينَ لِأَنَّ جِهَةَ الِاسْمِ عَامَّةٌ.
It is not [permissible for him to marry] his sister, the daughters of his sister, his father's sister and his mother's sister. Because of them being prohibited is stated in this ayat.5
[The prohibition] includes within it the various father's sisters, various mother's sisters and the daughters of the various brothers.6 Because the reference7 [to the siblings in the ayat] is general.
وَلَا بِأُمِّ امْرَأَتِهِ الَّتِي دَخَلَ بِهَا أَوْ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى
وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَائِكُمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ قَيْدِ الدُّخُولِ
It is not [permissible for him to marry] the mother of his wife8 [irrespective] if he had intercourse with the daughter [of that mother] or did not have intercourse. Because the statement of Allah, 'the mother's of your women', is not conditional on intercourse.
وَلَا بِبِنْتِ امْرَأَتِهِ الَّتِي دَخَلَ بِهَا لِثُبُوتِ قَيْدِ الدُّخُولِ بِالنَّصِّ
سَوَاءً كَانَتْ فِي حِجْرِهِ أَوْ فِي حِجْرِ غَيْرِهِ لِأَنَّ ذِكْرَ الْحِجْرِ خَرَجَ مَخْرَجَ الْعَادَةِ لَا مَخْرَجَ الشَّرْطِ وَلِهَذَا اكْتَفَى فِي مَوْضِعِ الْإِحْلَالِ بِنَفْيِ الدُّخُولِ
It is not [permissible for him to marry] the daughter of his woman with whom he has had intercourse. The condition of intercourse is proven in the source. [This case applies] irrespective if she9 is in his custody or not in his custody. Because the mention of 'hijr' (custody) [in the ayat] outlines10 common practice and not as a conditional clause.
وَلَا بِامْرَأَةِ أَبِيهِ وَأَجْدَادِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى
وَلا تَنْكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُمْ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ
It is not [permissible for him to marry] the woman of his father and grandfathers. As Allah Almighty states, 'Do not marry any of the women who your father has married'.
وَلَا بِامْرَأَةِ ابْنِهِ وَبَنِي أَوْلَادِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى
وَحَلائِلُ أَبْنَائِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلابِكُمْ وَذَكَرَ الْأَصْلَابَ لِإِسْقَاطِ اعْتِبَارِ التَّبَنِّي لَا لِإِحْلَالِ حَلِيلَةِ الِابْنِ مِنْ الرَّضَاعَةِ
It is not [permissible for him to marry] the woman11 of his son and his children's son. As Allah Almighty states, 'The women of your sons from your loins'.
'Loins' (aslab) is mentioned to drop consideration [of the wives or women] of the adopted son. [The ayat does] not permit [marriage] to the women of the radhaʿi son.
وَلَا بِأُمِّهِ مِنْ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَلَا بِأُخْتِهِ مِنْ الرَّضَاعَةِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى
وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللاتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَلِقَوْلِهِ - عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -
يَحْرُمُ مِنْ الرَّضَاعِ مَا يَحْرُمُ مِنْ النَّسَبِ.
It is not [permissible for him to marry] his radhaʿi mother12 or his radhaʿi sister13 . As Allah Almighty states, '[Prohibited] are your mothers who nursed you milk' and sisters from radhaʿat. Because of the [Prophet's] statement, 'Nursing (Radhaʿat) makes prohibited that which lineage makes prohibited'.
المتفرقات and المتفرقين / lit. Various / Referring to ayni siblings (same father and mother), allati siblings (same father and different mothers) and akhyafi siblings (different fathers and same mother).
Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
24 Safar 1442 AH
11 Oct 2020 CE
Updated: 26 Oct 2020
- 1Surah Nisa: 23
- 2As they fall in the classification of mothers.
- 3Surah Nisa: 23 - 'Your daughters are forbidden upon you'
- 4The literal meaning of a daughter is a female descendant. So it includes any descendant from the male or female line. Furthermore, there is ijmaʿ upon the fact that it is prohibited to marry their own descendant.
- 5Surah Nisa (ayat 23): حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ الْأُخْتِ
- 6By 'various' the author is alluding to full siblings (ayni) and half-siblings from the same mother (akhyafi) or the same father (allati).
- 7Lit. aspects of the name
- 8Lit. woman
- 9The daughter of his wife or any woman with whom he has had sexual relations
- 10lit. comes in the place
- 11Wife or any woman with whom the son or male descendant has had intercourse.
- 12The woman who nursed him with his milk when he was less than two years of age.
- 13the daughter of his radhaʿi father or mother.
Subject: Fiqh, Hidayah
Author: M. Saifur Rahman Nawhami