The hamzah will either be at a word's beginning, middle, or end.
The hamzah which occurs at the beginning of a word:
[A hamzah at the beginning is called a hamzah mutaqaddimah. It may be a hamzah qatiʾ or hamzah wasl.]
When the hamzah appears at the beginning - as in: as the first letter of the word - it will always be written in the form of the alif, regardless of whether it is maftūhatan, maksūratan, or madmumatan. e.g. أَحَدَ، أُحُد، و إِبِل.
Likewise, when the لام الابتداء or حرف الجرّ enters upon the hamza at the beginning of a word, e.g. لأفضل، و بإصبع.
EXCEPTIONS: In the words: لِئلَّا، و لَئِنْ where the hamzah is written on the yā, just like that hamzah which appears in the middle of the word is written, due to common usage.
The above discussion is the case when the hamzah is hamzah qat’, and as for when it is a hamzah waṣl: It will be dropped in writing after;
- the 'ف' and 'و' which appear directly before it, e.g. فَأْتِنِي and وَأْذَنْ لِي
- the ل which enters upon ‘أَلْف’ e.g. فعلتُ هذا للْخير
The hamza which occurs in the middle of a word:
[A hamzah in the middle of a word is called a hamzah mutawassiṭah.]
When the hamza is in the middle - as in it appears in the middle of the word and it
- is Sākinah: it will be written in the letter form which correlates with the harakah of the letter which comes before it - before the hamzah sākinah (ـأْ) e.g. رَأْس، ذِئْب، بُؤْس.
- is Mutaharrik: it will be written in the letter form which corresponds to its own harakah, regardless of whether the letter before it is mutaharrik or sākin, e.g. سَأَلَ، سَئِمَ، لَؤُمَ، يَسْأَلُ، يَيْئِسُ، وَ يَبْؤُسُ.
EXCEPTION: When the hamza is maftūhatan and the letter before it is either Madmoom or maksūr; then in that case it will be written on the letter which corresponds to the harakah of the letter before it, e.g. سُؤَال، و مُؤَنَّث، و ذِئَاب.
USAGE: The hamzah of the words مَسْئَلَة، وَ مَسْئُول are written on the letter yaa, which contradicts the rule, and it is correct for the first to be written on an alif like so - مَسْأَلَة , and for the second to be written on a waw like so - مَسْؤُول, and they are also written in this way.
- Occurs between an alif and a yā: It is permissible for the hamza to be written on the letter yaa, e.g. بَقَاءي، بَقَائِي، و الراءي و الرائي. ج
- Occurs between an alif and any damīr besides yā:
- If it is maftūhatan: It will be written separately (i.e. alone). E.g. دُعَاءَكَ
- If it is maḍmūmatan or maksūratan: It will be written on the letter which corresponds to its own harakah e.g. دُعَاؤُكَ، دُعَائِكَ.
- Occurs between two alifs: It will be written in its original form; so that three alifs are not altogether in writing e.g. قِرَاءَات، بَرَاءَاتِ.
The hamzah which occurs at the end of a word:
[A hamzah at the end of a word is called a hamzah mutaṭrifah.]
When the hamza is at the edge - as in it appears at the end: If the letter before it is;
- sākin: It will be written in its original form, regardless of whether the letter before it is:
- a harf sahīh e.g. جُزْءُ، وَ الْمَرْءُ.
- an alif / waw / yā e.g. بَاءَ، وَ ضَوْء، وَ شَيْء، وَ فَيْء.
- mutaharrik: It will be written on the letter which corresponds to the harakah of the letter before it, e.g. قَرَأَ، وَ قُرِئَ، وَ جَرُؤَ. ذ.
When the tā of ta’nīth is attached to it and;
- the letter before it is a harf sahīh sākin: it will be written on an alif e.g. الْمَرْأَة، وَ النَّشْأَة.
- the letter before it is a harf sahīh mutaharrik: it will be written on the letter which corresponds to the harakah of the letter before it e.g. فِئَة، وَمِئَة، وَ لُؤْلُؤَة.
- the letter before it is a yā: it will be written on the letter yaa e.g. مَشِيْئَة، وَ خَطِيْئَة.
- the letter before it is an alif or a waw: it will be written in its original form e.g. قِرَاءَة، وَ مُرُوءَة، وَ سَوْءَة.
USAGE: The hamzah maftūhah which appears before an alif will be written on an alif, and a madd will be placed on it, like so - آ. This is irrespective of whether it is at the beginning of a word (e.g. آمَنَ، وَ آمِنُ ) , or in the middle of it (e.g. قُرْآن، و شَنَآن، و ظَمْآن ) , or at its end (e.g. ظَمْآى، و سُوَآى، و مَلْآى ).
Muqniʾ fi Maʾrifat Marsūm Maṣāḥif Ahl al-Amsār li Abu Amr al-Dani (d. 444 AH). na. Maktabah Nizam Yaqubi; Bahrayn. pp. 148-169 v. 2
al-Muyassar fi ʿIlm Rasm al-Muṣḥāf wa Ḍabṭihu li Ghānim Qaddūri. 1437/2016. Maʾhad Imam Shatibi, Saudi Arabia. pp. 147-158
Mawārid al-Zam'an li Kharraz (d. 717). 1427/2006. Maktabah Imam Bukhari. Verses 291-337
Kitāb al-Wasīlah ila Kashf al-ʿAqīlah li Abi Hasan Sakhawi (d. 643). 1424/2003. Maktabah Rushd, Saudi Arabia. p. 366
Author: Ml. Mahfuz Ahmad Sylheti